Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and plant responses to stress [Review]
  • 【摘要】

    4-aminobutyrate (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed throughout the biological world. In animals, GABA. functions as the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central... 展开>>4-aminobutyrate (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed throughout the biological world. In animals, GABA. functions as the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system by acting through the GABA receptors. The neuromuscular system enables animals to escape from environmental stresses. Being nonmotile, plants have evolved chemical responses to mitigate stress. Mechanisms by which GABA may facilitate these responses are discussed in this review. Environmental stresses increase GABA accumulation through two different mechanisms. Stresses causing metabolic and/or mechanical disruptions, resulting in cytosolic acidification, induce an acidic pH-dependent activation of glutamate decarboxylase and GABA synthesis. Extremely marked declines in cytosolic pH occur under oxygen deprivation, which is the primary stress factor in flooded soils, and this stress induces the greatest accumulation of GABA. Other stresses, including cold, heat, salt, and mild or transient environmental factors, such as touch, wind, rain, etc. rapidly increase cellular levels of Ca2+. Increased cytosolic Ca2+ stimulates calmodulin-dependent glutamate decarboxylase activity and GABA synthesis. A review of the kinetics of GABA accumulation in plants reveals a stress-specific pattern of accumulation that is consistent with a physiological role for GABA in stress mitigation. Recent physiological and genetic evidence indicates that plants may possess GABA-like receptors that have features in common with the animal receptors. The mechanism of action of animal GABA receptors suggests a model for rapid amplification of ion-mediated signals and GABA accumulation in response to stress. Metabolic pathways that link GABA to stress-related metabolism and plant hormones are identified. The survival value of stress-related metabolism is dependent on metabolic changes occurring before stress causes irreversible damage to plant tissue. Rapid accumulation of GABA in stress 收起<<

  • 【作者】

    Kinnersley AM.  Turano FJ. 

  • 【刊期】

    Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences SCI 2000年6期

  • 【语种】

    Eng